RFID in Europe Magazine Febuary 2016

 The RFID in Europe Magazine for Febuary 2017 is availible to download now

RFID in Europe AISBL is a not-for-profit organization established in 2012. RFID in Europe's principle goal is to promote the adoption of Radio Frequency Identification and related technology solutions enabling small and medium sized organizations throughout Europe to gain competitive advantage through their best use. RFID in Europe connects with European end-users, operators, solution providers, universities, research establishments, non-government and government organizations and all other European stakeholders through own initiatives and promotion of national projects via our international network. RFID in Europe is an extension of a European Commission FP7 Thematic Network called RACE networkRFID initiated in 2009.

Standards & Regulations

 

Regulatory Constraints On The Use Of RFID

For low frequency (<135 kHz) and high frequency there is a fair degree of allowed usage for RFID purposes. However, at UHF carrier frequency the situation is somewhat more complicated.

EPCglobal provide a frequently updated website service that reports the regulatory status for using RFID in the UHF spectrum.
Within Europe ETSI deals with electromagnetic compatibility and radio spectrum matters (ERM) and generates the supporting standards for spectrum management while the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) generate the regulations and recommendations for spectrum management for national adoption within member states based upon the ETSI standards. Within the international framework of regulations and standards the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) develops regulations with respect to global spectrum matters and in doing so liaises with other standards and regulatory bodies including ETSI, CEPT and the Federal Communication Commission (FCC).

National Radio Regulators deal with the regulations within national boundaries and normally adopt those provided through CEPT. The UK national regulator is OFCOM (an Agency appointed by the Government. An EU Directive can require EU members to accept a "Harmonised" Standard (to develop single market)

CEPT Administration working within the European Electronic Communication Committee (ECC) cooperate to harmonise national regulations and foster world-wide harmonization on frequencies. The ECC Short Range Devices Maintenance Group (SRD/MG) maintains an important document, ECC Recommendations 70-03 (available from www.ero.dk) dealing with specific regulations for all SRDs, including RFID.

CEPT Administrations are encouraged to implement ECC Recommendations 70-03 as a vehicle for maximizing freedom of usage for radiocommunications equipment.CEPT Working Group WG SE24 supports the ECC SRD/MG in its technical consideration of spectrum issues including compatibility and interference studies.

RFID tags and systems may be viewed under the umbrella of short range devices (SRDs) and as a consequence technical specifications often include reference to EN Technical characteristics and test methods. In Europe various standards are in place that relate to the various bands in which RFID can be used:

  • EN 300 220 (Parts 1-3) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM):
    Short-Range Devices (SRD); Technical characteristics and test methods for radio equipment in the frequency range 25MHz to 1000MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500mW (1997-2005).
  • EN 300 330 (Parts 1-2) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM): Short-Range Devices (SRD); Technical characteristics and test methods for radio equipment in the frequency range 9kHz to 25MHz and inductive loop systems in the frequency range  9kHz to 30MHz (1999-2004).
  • EN 300 440 (Parts 1-2) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM): Short-Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 1GHz to 40GHz frequency range (2001- 2004).
  • EN 302 208 (Parts 1-2) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM): Short-Range Devices (SRD); Radio Frequency Identification Equipment operating in the band 865MHz to 868MHz with power levels up to 2W, with 200kHz subbands and a mandatory "listen before talk" (LBT) function (2004- 2005).

Equipment is also required to comply with the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference immunity (EMI) regulations in place for the country in which it is to be used.

Viewed within this regulatory framework has revealed particular emphasis upon UHF (902.0 - 928.0MHz, frequency hopping) for USA market and their need to consider the issues concerning UHF (865.6 - 867.6MHz) for the European EPCbased developments. A need is also seen for considering both UHF (433MHz and 2.45GHz) non-EPC active tag technology developments and
applications, exploiting both ISO/IEC and IEEE Wi-Fi standards. There is growing interest and development activities in active RFID technology operating at these frequencies, particularly with respect to location and sensory functions.

ISO/IEC Standards (http://www.iso.org/iso/en/)
The importance of standards can not be over emphasized for technologies, like RFID, that have universal relevance and significant potential for open systems usage. International standards have evolved for various sectors of RFID usage, notably in the areas of animal identification (ISO 11784 and 11785 with further development through ISO 14223/1) and contactless smart cards (ISO 10536, ISO 14443 and ISO 15693). Other standards, having a specific application focus, can also be recognised including identification for freight containers using 2.45GHz transponders (ISO 10374) and data carriers for tools and clamping devices (ISO 69873).

The need to produce broader based standards to accommodate supply chain item management requirements has resulted in significant standardisation activity being pursued through ISO/IEC JTC1 SC31 WG4 – RFID Item Management (ISO 18000 series - Information Technology – Automatic Identification and data capture techniques - Radio frequency identification for item management)
with the following air-interface and data structure standards now available:
   

  • ISO/IEC 18000-1 Part 1 – Reference architecture and definition of parameters
  • ISO/IEC 18000-2 Part 2 - Parameters for Air Interface Communications below 135 kHz   
  • ISO/IEC 18000-3 Part 3 - Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 13.56 MHz   
  • ISO/IEC 18000-4 Part 4 - Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 2.45 GHz   
  • ISO/IEC 18000-5 Part 5 - Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 5.8 GHz - abandoned project.
  • ISO/IEC 18000-6 Part 6 - Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 860 to 930MHz
  • ISO/IEC 18000-7 Part 7 - Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 433 MHz
  • ISO/IEC 15961 RFID for Item Management - Data protocol: Application interface
  • ISO/IEC 15962 RFID for Item Management - Protocol: Data encoding rules and logical memory  functions
  • ISO/IEC 15963 RFID for Item Management – Unique Identification of RF Tag
  • ISO/IEC 15459-4 - System of Unique Item Identification Codes


Work on further ISO/IEC standards is in progress for conformance, applications profiling and interfacing:

  • ISO/IEC 18001 RFID for Item Management – Application requirements profiles
  • ISO/IEC TR18047 Technical Report - RFID Conformance Test Methods
  • ISO/IEC 18047-2 Part 2: Parameters for air interface communications below 135 kHz
  • ISO/IEC 18047-3 Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13.56 MHz
  • ISO/IEC 18047-4 Part 4: Parameters for air interface communications at 2.45 MHz
  • ISO/IEC 18047-6 Part 6: Parameters for air interface communications at 860-960 MHz
  • ISO/IEC 18047-7 Part 7: Parameters for air interface communications at 433 MHz
  • ISO/IEC 19789 RFID for Item Management – Application Programmer Interface (API)
  • ISO/IEC TR 24710 Information Technology AIDC Techniques – RFID for Item Management - ISO 18000 Air Interface
  • Communications Elementary Tag license plate functionality for ISO 18000 air interface definitions.


ETSI Standards (http://pda.etsi.org/)

EN 300 220 (Parts 1-3) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM): Short-Range Devices (SRD); Technical characteristics and test methods for radio equipment in the frequency range 25MHz to 1000MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500mW (1997-2005).
- EN 300 330 (Parts 1-2) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM): Short-Range Devices (SRD); Technical characteristics and test methods for radio equipment in the frequency range 9kHz to 25MHz and inductive loop systems in the frequency range 9kHz to 30MHz (1999-2004).
- EN 300 440 (Parts 1-2) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM): Short-Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 1GHz to 40GHz frequency range (2001-2004).EN 302 208 (Parts 1-2) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM): Short-Range Devices (SRD); Radio Frequency Identification Equipment operating in the band 865MHz to 868MHz with power levels up to 2W (2004- 2005).

EPC Standards (http://www.epcglobalinc.org)

  • EPC Tag Data Specification version 1.1 – specific encoding schemes for serialised version of EAN.UCC numbering system
  • 900MHz Class 0 Radio Frequency (RF) Identification Tag Specification (Release 1.0).
  • 13.56MHz ISM Band Class 1 Radio Frequency (RF) Identification Tag Specification (Release 1.0).
  • 860-930MHz Class 1 RFID Tag Radio Frequency and Logical Communication Interface Specification (Release 1.0)
  • UHF Class 1 Generation 2 Air Interface Specification (Release 1.02) Essential elements of the present architecture (see http://www.epcglobalinc.org/standards_technology/Finalepcglobal-arch-200...)

Human Exposure To EMF'S Standards

Human exposure to electromagnetic fields from devices operating in the frequency range 0Hz to 10GHz,used in Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and similar applications

  • EN 50357 - Evaluation
  • EN 50364 - Limitation

This is effectively a product compliance standard – requiring compliance with EU Council directives 72/23/EEC & 1999/5/EC